ESTRUTURAS SOCIAIS E REFORMAS PENAIS: CRÍTICAS MARXISTAS À PUNIÇÃO NO CAPITALISMO TARDIO

Alessandro De Giorgi

Resumo


A presente contribuição oferece uma análise crítica das teorias neomarxistas da punição. A primeira parte do texto reconstrói duas perspectivas que emergiram da tradição criminológica materialista: (1) as chamadas “histórias revisionistas da punição” dos anos 1970, que revelaram as conexões históricas entre a emergência da pena moderna – isto é, a transição dos medievais “espetáculos de sofrimento” para a prisão disciplinar – e a consolidação de um sistema capitalista de produção baseado na exploração do trabalho; (2) a crítica neomarxista da pena contemporânea, que desenvolveu mais o cenário marxista numa tentativa de dissecar as relações estruturais entre as transformações no campo penal e processos contínuos de reestruturação do capitalismo neoliberal. A segunda parte endereça algumas críticas que tem se desenvolvido contra a perspectiva materialista – i.e, sua tendência em ignorar as dimensões político-institucionais das penas, sua relativa falta de atenção às dinâmicas racializadas da acumulação capitalista, e uma excessiva ênfase aos sentidos instrumentais das práticas penais às custas das dimensões simbólicas da punição. A terceira seção indica alguns dos desafios enfrentados pelas teorias neomarxistas da punição hoje, visualizando – ao longo dos recentes estudos sobre o poder carcerário sob o capitalismo racial – algumas possíveis novas direções de pesquisa num cenário crítico mais amplo, focado na interseção entre raça e classe como forças poderosas na reprodução do capitalismo.


Palavras-chave


Marxismo; Punição; Prisões; Economia Política; Capitalismo Racial; Neoliberalismo.

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